Special Educational Needs - Advice for teachers and school leaders
This guidance is written for members in England and Wales who have specific responsibilities for, or an interest in, SEN. The guidance draws on advice set out in the Special Educational Needs Code of Practice and the Special Educational Needs Code of Practice for Wales.
The guidance is intended to:
- provide an overview of the Special Educational Needs (SEN) Code of Practice and explain how the Code affects the work of teachers;
- explain the roles and responsibilities of teachers, SENCOs and support staff, including the relationship between the SENCO and other staff including teachers;
- explain how the requirements of the National Agreement ‘Raising Standards and Tackling Workload’ impact on work to deal with SEN, including the production of Individual Education Plans; and
- advise schools on what they should do to ensure that their provision for pupils with SEN complies with the requirements of the National Agreement.
The guide provides advice on the training and support that teachers should expect to receive if they are to ensure that they meet the needs of pupils with SEN. The guide also poses some key questions that can help to make judgements about the implementation of SEN along with suggestions for possible courses of action. The guide is broken down into sections so that readers can quickly identify information that is most relevant to them.
Defining SEN and SEN provision
The Education Act (1996) defines children as having special educational needs (SEN) if they have a learning difficulty that calls for special educational provision to be made for them.
Children have a learning difficulty if they:
- have significantly greater difficulty in learning than the majority of children of the same age;
- have a disability which prevents or hinders them from making use of educational facilities of a kind generally provided for children of the same age in schools within the area of the local authority (LA);
- are under compulsory school age and fall within the definition at (1) or (2) above or would do so if special educational provision was not made for them.
Special educational provision means:
- for children of two or over, educational provision which is additional to, or otherwise different from, the educational provision made generally for children of their age in schools maintained by the local authority, other than special schools, in the area;
- for children under two, educational provision of any kind.
Disability and SEN
The Code of Practice for Schools: Disability Discrimination Act 1995 states that a child has a disability if he or she has a physical or mental impairment that has a substantial and long-term adverse impact on his or her ability to carry out normal day-to-day activities.
A child who has SEN may, or may not, have a disability. For example, a child may have a behaviour difficulty which means that the child has greater difficulties in accessing the curriculum than other children of his/her age. However, the child’s behaviour difficulty may not be recognised as a disability.
Whilst many children who have a disability will have SEN, it must not be assumed that a who has a disability has SEN. A child with a disability has SEN only if they have any difficulty in accessing education and they need special educational provision to be made for them that is additional to, or different from, what is normally available in maintained schools in the area. In reality, the point at which an individual pupil needs additional or different provision is likely to depend on the school’s ethos and on the specific skills and expertise of staff across the school.
The Disability Discrimination Act places planning duties on maintained schools and local authorities. Schools are required to prepare and publish an Accessibility Plan and local authorities are required to prepare and publish an Accessibility Strategy setting out the planned improvements that will be taken in relation to disability access. The Plan/Strategy has to address three distinct elements of planned improvements in access for disabled pupils:
- improvements in access to the curriculum;
- physical improvements to increase access to education and associated services; and
- improvements in the provision of information, in a range of formats, for disabled pupils.
Whilst the Plan must address these three areas, a school is most likely to deal with disability equality issues effectively if a holistic approach to disability planning is adopted and if addressing disability equality is an integral part of mainstream planning and decision making. Therefore, the Accessibility Plan should be clearly linked to the School Improvement Plan.
Part 3 of the DDA places duties on ‘service providers’ to take steps to prevent discrimination on the grounds of disability. These duties do not apply to schools in terms of their provision of education to pupils and prospective pupils, but they could apply in respect of services provided to the public, e.g. as part of extended school services.
Race equality and SEN
Schools must ensure that all SEN provision takes account of the amended Race Relations Act 1976. Schools need to pay particular attention to distinguishing between the needs of pupils with SEN and pupils for whom English, and in Wales, English and/or Welsh, is an additional language (EAL). A school that fails to make an appropriate distinction between SEN and EAL could find itself subject to a claim of racial discrimination.
The amended Race Relations Act places a duty on schools and other public authorities, including local authorities, to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful racial discrimination and promote equality of opportunity and good relations between people from different racial groups. Schools and local authorities need to monitor by ethnicity all stages of the process for identifying, assessing and making provision for pupils with SEN. They also need to use the results of monitoring and consultation to assess how the various SEN policies and procedures impact on pupils by racial group.
The National Agreement ‘Raising Standards and Tackling Workload’
The National Agreement ‘Raising Standards and Tackling Workload’ sets out a statutory agreement between Government, employers, teacher and support staff unions to tackle teacher workload and raise standards in schools. Schools must comply with the provisions and principles introduced by the National Agreement and should, therefore, have reviewed the tasks undertaken by staff within the school. Schools should have reviewed how they manage and deliver provision for pupils with SEN, including the tasks undertaken by the SENCO(s). If the SENCO is a teacher, then the school must ensure that the SENCO does not routinely undertake clerical and administrative tasks, and that they are given specific time to enable them to undertake their SENCO responsibilities.
School staffing structure reviews
As a result of the 2005 regulations The Education (School Teachers’ Pay and Conditions) (No. 2), all schools are required to have completed a review of the whole school staffing structure. Schools have until December 2008 to complete the implementation of their staffing structure changes which should clarify the roles and responsibilities of staff. It is important that schools’ staffing structures recognise and make a distinction between the roles and responsibilities of SENCOs who are teachers and support staff with responsibilities for SEN. SENCOs who are teachers have a key role to play in leading and supporting the development of effective pedagogic practice relating to pupils with SEN. They should not, however, routinely undertake administrative or clerical tasks. Further information on roles and responsibilities is included in Section 4.
Government policy on inclusion
The SEN Code of Practice is based on the principle that, as far as possible, pupils with SEN should be educated in mainstream provision. Schools and local authorities are required to take a ‘graduated’ approach to SEN, with the focus being on prevention rather than crisis.
Local authorities have adopted different interpretations of what is meant by ‘inclusion’. Some local authorities have closed special school provision and educate all pupils in mainstream schools. Other local authorities have retained specialist provision, including special schools and specialist units. Some local authorities have sought to achieve a policy of inclusion by promoting collaboration and closer links between special schools and mainstream schools, which could include two or more schools undertaking partnership working, or a special school and a mainstream school being located on the same site. NASUWT stresses that whatever approach is adopted, schools must be adequately resourced and teachers appropriately trained and supported, so that they can meet the needs of all of the pupils they teach. The local authority’s policy for teaching pupils with SEN must not increase the workload burdens for teachers in schools.
Status of the SEN Code of Practice
The Code gives practical advice to schools and local authorities, along with those that help them, as to what they must do to meet their statutory responsibilities to identify, assess and make provision for children’s special educational needs.
Schools and local authorities must not ignore the Code. They must use the guidance provided in the Code of Practice to decide how they will fulfil their statutory duties towards children with special educational needs.
Special Educational Needs and Disability Tribunals (SENDIST in England and SENTW in Wales) deal with appeals from parents regarding SEN provision. Tribunals must take account of what the Code says in arriving at a decision about an appeal. In relation to any issue that is relevant to the appeal, schools and local authorities must be able to show either that they have followed the guidance in the Code or be able to justify why they have departed from the advice given in the Code.
Preparing and maintaining an SEN Policy
Every maintained school, Pupil Referral Unit (PRU), maintained nursery school, and early years setting that is in receipt of government funding for early years education must have an SEN policy. The governing body of a maintained school, or the local authority in the case of a PRU, is responsible for ensuring that the school has a policy and that the policy is regularly monitored and reviewed.
Identification, assessment and provision of support to pupils with SEN
The Code of Practice provides advice on three stages of action to support pupils
- School Action;
- School Action Plus; and
- statutory assessment.
School Action involves the class teacher in a primary school, or a subject teacher, member of the pastoral team or the SENCO in a secondary school providing interventions that are additional to or different from those provided as part of the school’s usual differentiated curriculum offer and strategies.
The triggers for intervention through School Action could be the teacher’s or others’ concerns, underpinned by evidence, about a pupil who despite receiving differentiated learning opportunities:
makes little or no progress even when teaching approaches are targeted particularly in a pupil’s identified area of weakness; shows signs of difficulty in developing literacy or mathematical skills which result in poor attainment in some curriculum areas; presents persistent emotional or behavioural difficulties which are not alleviated by the behaviour management techniques usually employed in the school; has sensory or physical problems, and continues to make little or no progress despite the provision of specialist equipment; has communication and/or interaction difficulties, and continues to make little or no progress despite the provision of a differentiated curriculum.
In a primary school, the pupil’s teacher, along with the SENCO in consultation with the parents, should decide on the action needed to help the pupil. In a secondary school, the head of department or the SENCO and other relevant staff, in consultation with the parents, should decide on the action needed to help the pupil. School Action could include providing different learning materials or special equipment, introducing some group or individual support, or it might involve some one-to-one tuition.
School Action Plus
School Action Plus involves the school providing the pupil with additional and/or different support as described under School Action and the pupil receiving additional specialist input from external services. A request for help from external services is likely to follow a decision taken by the SENCO and colleagues, in consultation with parents, at a meeting to review the provision and progress made for the pupil.
At School Action Plus, the pupil will usually be seen by external support services provided by the local authority or other outside agencies. These agencies will advise teachers on new targets and strategies for supporting the pupil. They also provide more specialist assessments that are used to inform planning and the measurement of a pupil’s progress, and give advice on the use of new or specialist strategies or materials. In some cases, they may provide support for particular activities.
The triggers for School Action Plus could be that, despite receiving an individualised programme and/or concentrated support under School Action, the pupil:
- continues to make little or no progress in specific areas over a long period;
- continues working at National Curriculum levels substantially below that of children of a similar age;
- continues to have difficulty in developing literacy and mathematical skills;
- has emotional or behaviour difficulties which substantially and regularly interfere with the pupil’s own learning or that of the class group, despite having an individualised behaviour management programme;
- has sensory or physical needs and requires additional specialist equipment or regular advice or visits by a specialist service;
- has ongoing communication or interaction difficulties that impede the development of social relationships and cause substantial barriers to learning.
Statutory assessment and statements of SEN
A parent or a school may make a request for a statutory assessment. A school should make a request for a statutory assessment when, despite School Action and School Action Plus, a pupil demonstrates significant cause for concern. The local authority will then decide whether the school has done all that it can under School Action and School Action Plus before concluding that a statutory assessment is needed.
If a pupil is referred to the local authority for statutory assessment the school will need to state the reasons for the request and provide written evidence or information about:
- the school’s action through School Action and School Action Plus;
- the Individual Education Plans/SEN Plans for the pupil;
- records of regular reviews and their outcomes;
- the views of the parent and of the pupil;
- attainments in literacy and numeracy and National Curriculum levels;
- educational and other assessments, e.g. an educational psychologist;
- the pupil’s health, including their medical history, where relevant;
- any involvement by the social services or education welfare services;
- involvement of other professionals.
The local authority will use this information to decide whether a statutory assessment is needed. If the local authority does conduct a statutory assessment, it will do so in close collaboration with parents, schools and other agencies.
Statutory assessment does not always lead to a statement. The local authority might identify different ways in which the school, possibly with additional local authority intervention, could help the pupil. However, if a statutory assessment identifies that a pupil’s special educational needs cannot be met through School Action and School Action Plus the local authority will need to prepare a statement of SEN.
All statements must be reviewed at least annually, although in some cases the statement may be reviewed more frequently than this. The review provides a means of monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of the statement.
The status of a statement will depend on the local authority and its arrangements for supporting pupils with SEN. Some authorities will fund all statements of SEN. However, other authorities do not fund statements, or may only fund certain types of statement, for example statements for pupils with more complex needs. In these instances, local authorities will devolve funding for SEN to schools. The differences in approach to funding arise because local authorities are able to determine their approach to inclusion: there is no national framework or minimum standards for the provision of SEN.
Government policy is to reduce reliance on statements. Within this context, local authorities are able to determine the point at which they will issue statements. In practice, there is wide variation between authorities. Some authorities will issue very few statements of SEN and policies where statements are not funded may be intended to discourage reliance on statements.
In order to comply with the Code of Practice schools must:
- identify learning targets for individual pupils with SEN;
- plan additional or different provision from the differentiated curriculum offer for all pupils;
- review provision in light of pupil outcomes.
The Code of Practice makes reference to Individual Education Plans (IEPs) as a method for recording the processes of target setting, planning and review. However, there is no statutory requirement for schools to produce IEPs. This means that schools can develop and use their own systems for recording target setting, planning and review. DfES advice is that if a school has a policy of individual planning and recording for all pupils then the child with SEN should not need an IEP. The DfES also says that the National Strategies provide examples of how to record interventions as part of class lesson plans with a record of the child’s progress (the outcomes of the intervention) being recorded in the same way for all children.
It is important to note that the DfES advice refers to individual planning and recording for all pupils, not to individual Plans for all pupils. Schools should not produce individual Plans for every pupil, for example as part of a strategy of personalised learning, since this will increase workload and bureaucracy.
The planning tool that is used by a school must fulfil the functions of an IEP. This means that it must be able to cover interventions for individual pupils:
- made through School Action – where action is identified and delivered by the school;
- made through School Action Plus – where action is identified and delivered by the school with external specialist support;
- with statements of SEN.
The Code of Practice identifies four broad strands of action to meet pupils’ special educational needs which should, as appropriate, be referred to in the individual pupil’s Plan:
- assessment planning and review;
- grouping for teaching purposes;
- additional human resources; and
- curriculum and teaching methods.
What should be included in the Plan?
It is essential that the system that the school uses for planning and recording the interventions for individual pupils with SEN is not bureaucratic. It must not increase the workload burdens of teachers nor duplicate other recording systems.
The Plan should use a simple format and be clear and brief, focusing on:
- no more than three or four key individual targets. These should help to meet the individual pupil’s needs and particular priorities;
- targets that relate to key areas in communication, literacy, mathematics, aspects of behaviour or physical skills; and
- the pupil’s strengths and successes. These should underpin the targets that are set and the strategies used.
The Plan should include information about:
• short-term targets set for or by the pupil. Targets must be achievable for both the teacher and the pupil. Targets should be set in small steps so that success is clearly visible;
- the teaching strategies to be used;
- the provision to be put in place;
- when the Plan is to be reviewed;
- success and/or exit criteria; and
- outcomes. These should be recorded when the Plan is reviewed.
The Plan should also include:
- relevant information about the nature of the child’s need;
- parents’ views and parental involvement/support at home; and
- details of any pastoral or medical requirements.
Monitoring and reviewing the Plan
Formal reviews of the Plan should normally take place twice a year. The review should focus on:
- progress made by the pupil;
- the effectiveness of the Plan;
- updating information and advice; and
- future targets and action.
Account should be taken of the views of the parent and of the pupil. The review of the Plan should not be confused with the annual review of a statement of SEN. The statutory annual review of the statement is different from the ongoing teacher review of a Plan. However, the Plan may be discussed as part of the agenda at an annual review meeting.
The governing body
In a maintained school, ultimate responsibility for complying with the statutory duties towards pupils with SEN rests with the governing body, and, in the case of a PRU, with the local authority. The school’s governing body is responsible for ensuring that the school has an appropriate SEN policy, that the policy is subject to regular monitoring, review and evaluation, and that it is linked to the School Improvement Plan.
The governing body should, with the help of the headteacher, decide the school’s policy and approach to meeting pupils’ special educational needs. This should include examining how the school’s ethos, policies and practice can support pupils and address or meet the specific needs of pupils with SEN. The governing body must set up appropriate staffing and funding arrangements and oversee the school’s work to support pupils with SEN. The governing body must also ensure that the school’s prospectus complies with statutory requirements regarding the publication of information relating to pupils with SEN and disabilities.
The headteacher is responsible for the day-to-day management of provision for pupils with SEN. The headteacher should keep the governing body fully informed about the provision and any issues that arise. The headteacher should advise the governing body on policies and practice that address barriers to including pupils with SEN. The headteacher should also work closely with the SEN Co-ordinator (SENCO) or SEN team and should ensure that the relationship between the SENCO/SENCO team and other staff in the school is mutually supportive.
Every school must appoint a ‘responsible person’ for SEN. This is usually the headteacher, but the chair of governors or a governor appointed by the governing body might take on that responsibility. The ‘responsible person’ must make sure that all those who are responsible for teaching a pupil with a statement of SEN are told about the statement.
Roles and responsibilities of the SENCO
The SENCO/SENCO team is responsible for the day-to-day operation of the school’s SEN policy and for co-ordinating provision for pupils with SEN. The SENCO liaises with other teachers in the school and is likely to be responsible for co-ordinating the planning of a pupil’s IEP or Plan for SEN, including setting appropriate targets. The SENCO is also responsible for liaising with relevant external agencies and for contributing to the in-service training of staff. The SENCO may act in an advisory or supportive role to other members of staff, particularly in terms of helping staff to establish appropriate pedagogic practice to support pupils with SEN.
In many secondary schools, the role of SENCO will be the full-time responsibility of at least one member of staff. The SENCO may be responsible for managing a team of SEN teachers and learning support assistants. The Code of Practice recommends that the SENCO post is equivalent to that of Head of Department.
In many primary schools, the role of SENCO is often not a full-time responsibility but is combined with other responsibilities. However, the SENCO should be part of the school's senior management team and be in a position to contribute to management decisions within the school. All schools must ensure that the SENCO has significant time allocated to enable them to carry out the responsibility.
Schools should take steps to ensure that the SENCO and/or members of the SENCO team are given specific leadership and management time for:
- planning and co-ordination away from the classroom – this should be in addition to the 10% minimum time that is allocated to teachers for lesson planning;
- maintaining appropriate individual and whole school records, including Plans of children at School Action and School Action Plus and those with statements
however, the National Agreement means that administrative aspects of this work must not be undertaken by the SENCO/members of the SENCO team who are teachers;
- observing pupils – this means having dedicated time for observing pupils in addition to observations that might be undertaken whilst teaching pupils;
- managing, supporting and training learning support assistants;
- liaising with colleagues within the school and colleagues in other schools, settings and organisations – this might include, as appropriate, primary/secondary schools, colleges, Connexions/Careers Wales, educational psychology services, health and social services.
Roles and responsibilities of teachers and teaching support staff
Teachers and support staff should be involved, as appropriate, in the development of the school’s SEN policy. All staff need to be aware of the school’s procedures for identifying, assessing and making provision for pupils with SEN.
Teachers are responsible for devising strategies and identifying appropriate methods for ensuring access to the curriculum. This includes strategies for providing differentiated teaching, for example group teaching. Teachers should regularly examine their strategies and methods to see if they can make improvements that will help pupils to access the curriculum.
All staff in the school or setting who may come into contact with a pupil who has SEN should be advised of the planned strategies for meeting the pupil’s needs. Teachers may be asked to provide the SENCO with feedback on the pupil’s progress as part of the process reviewing his/her needs.
Effective delivery of SEN provision in schools means that all teachers and support staff need regular, up-to-date training on SEN, and easy access to high-quality advice and support.
The Standards for QTS state that in order to achieve QTS, trainees ‘must demonstrate that they understand their responsibilities under the SEN Code of Practice and know how to seek advice from specialists on less common types of special educational needs’. This means that ITT providers and the partner schools must ensure that trainees are given sufficient opportunities to gain this knowledge and understanding.
The Induction Standards/End of Induction Standard require NQTs to demonstrate that they plan effectively to meet the needs of pupils in their classes with special educational needs, with or without statements, and that in consultation with the SENCO they contribute to the preparation, implementation, monitoring and review of IEPs or the equivalent. Schools must ensure that NQTs are given appropriate training and support so that they meet the requirements of this standard.
The SENCO, along with the school’s Senior Management Team, should ensure that there is a regular and appropriate programme of training and support for different groups of staff within the school. The local authority also has a key role to play in enabling schools to provide goodquality, appropriate training and support relating to the teaching of pupils with SEN.
Schools need to carry out a risk assessment when pupils undertake work-related learning. The length and nature of the work-related learning placement will determine the type of risk assessment that is carried out. However, all risk assessments should include checking that, where appropriate, the staff who work with pupils are CRB-checked, and that work-related learning providers have the appropriate insurance. Some local authorities carry out risk assessments on behalf of their schools. However, where this does not happen the school is responsible for undertaking the risk assessment. The school might contract an external agency to undertake the task. Alternatively, risk assessments should be undertaken by an appropriately qualified and trained member of staff. It is not appropriate for a teacher to undertake this task.
The DfES guidance Extended Work Experience and Child Protection: Safeguarding Children in Education – Supplementary DfES Guidance for Work Experience makes a distinction between short-term and short-term extended work placements, and long-term extended work placements.
Short-term and short-term extended work placements are placements that are broadly equivalent to up to 15 days. Such work placements might be undertaken in blocks or half a day a week. Risk assessments for this type of placement should look at the general suitability of the placement for pupils on work-related experience. The assessment should look at issues of health, safety and welfare. The assessment should also include identifying if additional safeguards might be needed if a pupil is vulnerable. This would include identifying if a pupil with SEN requires additional safeguards.
Long-term extended work placements are placements that last more than the equivalent of 15 days. Because pupils spend more time in the placement and it is spread over a longer period of time, the DfES considers that there is a greater risk than in short-term placements and that additional safeguards are necessary to protect children. These include placement organisers having policies and procedures to respond to a child protection issue, work placement organisers being trained or briefed on child protection issues, and the person with prime responsibility for overseeing the pupil during the placement and/or any member of staff who has been CRB-checked being briefed and/or trained on child protection. These safeguards should address the needs of pupils with SEN. Further information about work-related learning is available from the DfES. See the DfES website www.teachernet.gov.uk/teachingandlearning/14to19/workrelatedlearning/ (new window).
Policies and procedures for implementing the SEN policy
- Does the school have an SEN policy?
- Has the school consulted NASUWT about the policy and its implementation?
- Is the SEN policy consistent with other school policies? In particular, does the SEN policy address issues arising from the school’s behaviour policy and equal opportunities policies?
- Are SEN issues addressed within the School Improvement Plan?
- Is the SEN policy being implemented effectively?
- How might the policy and its related procedures be improved? Governing body and leadership
- Does the school’s governing body regularly monitor, review and evaluate the effectiveness of the SEN policy?
- Does the school prospectus include the following:
- Information on arrangements for the admission of pupils with disabilities?
- Details of measures to prevent disabled pupils being treated less favourably than other pupils?
- Details of existing facilities to assist access to the school by pupils with disabilities?
- The school’s accessibility plan (required under the Disability Discrimination Act 1995)?
- Information about the implementation of the SEN policy and any changes to the policy during the last year?
Leadership and management
- Is there an identified ‘responsible person’ (i.e. the headteacher, the chair of governors, or a governor) with specific responsibilities for SEN?
- Does the school ensure that teachers do not routinely undertake clerical and administrative tasks related to supporting pupils with SEN?
- Are the school’s systems for planning, target setting and review for individual pupils with SEN non-bureaucratic and workload light?
- Does the school’s staffing structure include appropriate posts with specific responsibilities for SEN? Are post-holders appropriately graded and remunerated?
DDA - Disability Discrimination Act
DRC - Disability Rights Commission
EAL - English as an Additional Language
IEP - Individual Education Plan
ITT - Initial Teacher Training
LA - local authority
NQT - newly qualified teacher
PRU - Pupil Referral Unit
QTS - Qualified Teacher Status
SEN - special educational needs
SENCO - Special Educational Needs Co-ordinator
SENDIST - Special Educational Needs Disability Tribunal
SENTW - Special Educational Needs Tribunal for Wales
SMT - Senior Management Team
DfES (2001) Special Educational Needs Code of Practice (Reference DfES/581/2001)
DfES (2004) Removing Barriers to Achievement: The Government’s Strategy for SEN (Reference DfES/0117/2004)
DfES (2004) Extended Work Experience and Child Protection: Safeguarding Children in Education – Supplementary DfES Guidance for Work Experience
Disability Rights Commission (2002) Code of Practice for Schools: Disability Discrimination Act 1995: Part 4
NASUWT (2005) Behaviour Management and the Implications of the DDA
NASUWT (2003) NASUWT Advice on the Disability Rights Commission Codes of Practice for Schools and Post-16
NASUWT (2003) The National Agreement ‘Raising Standards and Tackling Workload’
NASUWT/SHA (2003) Behaviour Management
NASUWT (2002) Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000 and the Code of Practice: Implications for Schools and Colleges
Welsh Assembly Government (2004) Special Educational Needs Code of Practice for Wales
Hillscourt Education Centre
Tel: 0121 453 6150
Fax: 0121 457 6208/9
 Section 312, Education Act 1996.
 Code of Practice for Schools: Disability Discrimination Act 1995: Part 4 sections 4.2-4.10 define disability discrimination andthe relationship between disability and SEN.
 Code of Practice for Schools: Disability Discrimination Act 1995: Part 4 sections 3.9-3.12.
 A maintained school includes community, foundation, voluntary aided, voluntary controlled, Academy or a City Technology College.
 Special Educational Needs Code of Practice – sections 5.43-5.49 for primary schools and sections 6.50-6.57 for secondary schools.
 Special Educational Needs Code of Practice – sections 5.54-5.61 for primary schools and sections 6.62-6.69 for secondary schools.
 SEN Code of Practice Chapter 7 and sections 5.62-5.73 for primary schools and 6.70-6.75 for secondary schools.
 Unpublished written advice from the SEN Strategy Team, DfES, provided in response to queries from schools about planning and recording support for SEN and the use of IEPs.
 SEN Code of Practice – sections 5.50 for primary schools and 6.58 for secondary schools.